Problem 11: Largest product in a grid

(see projecteuler.net/problem=11)

In the 20x20 grid below, four numbers along a diagonal line have been marked in red.

08 02 22 97 38 15 00 40 00 75 04 05 07 78 52 12 50 77 91 08
49 49 99 40 17 81 18 57 60 87 17 40 98 43 69 48 04 56 62 00
81 49 31 73 55 79 14 29 93 71 40 67 53 88 30 03 49 13 36 65
52 70 95 23 04 60 11 42 69 24 68 56 01 32 56 71 37 02 36 91
22 31 16 71 51 67 63 89 41 92 36 54 22 40 40 28 66 33 13 80
24 47 32 60 99 03 45 02 44 75 33 53 78 36 84 20 35 17 12 50
32 98 81 28 64 23 67 10 26 38 40 67 59 54 70 66 18 38 64 70
67 26 20 68 02 62 12 20 95 63 94 39 63 08 40 91 66 49 94 21
24 55 58 05 66 73 99 26 97 17 78 78 96 83 14 88 34 89 63 72
21 36 23 09 75 00 76 44 20 45 35 14 00 61 33 97 34 31 33 95
78 17 53 28 22 75 31 67 15 94 03 80 04 62 16 14 09 53 56 92
16 39 05 42 96 35 31 47 55 58 88 24 00 17 54 24 36 29 85 57
86 56 00 48 35 71 89 07 05 44 44 37 44 60 21 58 51 54 17 58
19 80 81 68 05 94 47 69 28 73 92 13 86 52 17 77 04 89 55 40
04 52 08 83 97 35 99 16 07 97 57 32 16 26 26 79 33 27 98 66
88 36 68 87 57 62 20 72 03 46 33 67 46 55 12 32 63 93 53 69
04 42 16 73 38 25 39 11 24 94 72 18 08 46 29 32 40 62 76 36
20 69 36 41 72 30 23 88 34 62 99 69 82 67 59 85 74 04 36 16
20 73 35 29 78 31 90 01 74 31 49 71 48 86 81 16 23 57 05 54
01 70 54 71 83 51 54 69 16 92 33 48 61 43 52 01 89 19 67 48

The product of these numbers is 26 x 63 x 78 x 14 = 1788696.

What is the greatest product of four adjacent numbers in the same direction
(up, down, left, right, or diagonally) in the 20x20 grid?

My Algorithm

For each position of the grid I find the product of 4 connected cells:
1. current cell and its three neighbors when going to the right side
2. current cell and its three neighbors below it
3. current cell and its three neighbors going right and down
4. current cell and its three neighbors going left and down

For each of these steps I have to check whether enough neighbor exist.
And finally the greatest product is printed.

Note

Be careful when reading a 2D matrix from console:
the outer loop must belong to the y-axis, the inner to x.
A common mistake of mine is to swap those two.

Interactive test

You can submit your own input to my program and it will be instantly processed at my server:

Input data (separated by spaces or newlines):

This is equivalent to
echo "08 02 22 97 38 15 00 40 00 75 04 05 07 78 52 12 50 77 91 08 49 49 99 40 17 81 18 \
57 60 87 17 40 98 43 69 48 04 56 62 00 81 49 31 73 55 79 14 29 93 71 40 67 \
53 88 30 03 49 13 36 65 52 70 95 23 04 60 11 42 69 24 68 56 01 32 56 71 37 \
02 36 91 22 31 16 71 51 67 63 89 41 92 36 54 22 40 40 28 66 33 13 80 24 47 \
32 60 99 03 45 02 44 75 33 53 78 36 84 20 35 17 12 50 32 98 81 28 64 23 67 \
10 26 38 40 67 59 54 70 66 18 38 64 70 67 26 20 68 02 62 12 20 95 63 94 39 \
63 08 40 91 66 49 94 21 24 55 58 05 66 73 99 26 97 17 78 78 96 83 14 88 34 \
89 63 72 21 36 23 09 75 00 76 44 20 45 35 14 00 61 33 97 34 31 33 95 78 17 \
53 28 22 75 31 67 15 94 03 80 04 62 16 14 09 53 56 92 16 39 05 42 96 35 31 \
47 55 58 88 24 00 17 54 24 36 29 85 57 86 56 00 48 35 71 89 07 05 44 44 37 \
44 60 21 58 51 54 17 58 19 80 81 68 05 94 47 69 28 73 92 13 86 52 17 77 04 \
89 55 40 04 52 08 83 97 35 99 16 07 97 57 32 16 26 26 79 33 27 98 66 88 36 \
68 87 57 62 20 72 03 46 33 67 46 55 12 32 63 93 53 69 04 42 16 73 38 25 39 \
11 24 94 72 18 08 46 29 32 40 62 76 36 20 69 36 41 72 30 23 88 34 62 99 69 \
82 67 59 85 74 04 36 16 20 73 35 29 78 31 90 01 74 31 49 71 48 86 81 16 23 \
57 05 54 01 70 54 71 83 51 54 69 16 92 33 48 61 43 52 01 89 19 67 48
" | ./11

Output:

(please click 'Go !')

(this interactive test is still under development, computations will be aborted after one second)

My code

… was written in C++ and can be compiled with G++, Clang++, Visual C++. You can download it, as well as the input data, too.

#include <iostream>
 
int main()
{
// always a 20x20 matrix
const unsigned int Size = 20;
unsigned int matrix[Size][Size];
 
// read from console
for (unsigned int y = 0; y < Size; y++)
for (unsigned int x = 0; x < Size; x++)
std::cin >> matrix[x][y];
 
unsigned int best = 0;
// walk through all cells of the matrix
for (unsigned int y = 0; y < Size; y++)
for (unsigned int x = 0; x < Size; x++)
{
// three more horizontal cells (right)
if (x + 3 < Size)
{
unsigned int current = matrix[x][y] * matrix[x+1][y] * matrix[x+2][y] * matrix[x+3][y];
if (best < current)
best = current;
}
// three more vertical cells available (down)
if (y + 3 < Size)
{
unsigned int current = matrix[x][y] * matrix[x][y+1] * matrix[x][y+2] * matrix[x][y+3];
if (best < current)
best = current;
}
// three more diagonal cells (right-down)
if (x + 3 < Size && y + 3 < Size)
{
unsigned int current = matrix[x][y] * matrix[x+1][y+1] * matrix[x+2][y+2] * matrix[x+3][y+3];
if (best < current)
best = current;
}
// three more diagonal cells (left-down)
if (x + 3 < Size && y >= 3)
{
unsigned int current = matrix[x][y] * matrix[x+1][y-1] * matrix[x+2][y-2] * matrix[x+3][y-3];
if (best < current)
best = current;
}
}
 
std::cout << best << std::endl;
return 0;
}

This solution contains 4 empty lines, 7 comments and 1 preprocessor command.

Benchmark

The correct solution to the original Project Euler problem was found in less than 0.01 seconds on an Intel® Core™ i7-2600K CPU @ 3.40GHz.
(compiled for x86_64 / Linux, GCC flags: -O3 -march=native -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -std=gnu++11 -DORIGINAL)

See here for a comparison of all solutions.

Note: interactive tests run on a weaker (=slower) computer. Some interactive tests are compiled without -DORIGINAL.

Changelog

February 23, 2017 submitted solution
March 29, 2017 added comments

Hackerrank

see https://www.hackerrank.com/contests/projecteuler/challenges/euler011

My code solves 6 out of 6 test cases (score: 100%)

Difficulty

5% Project Euler ranks this problem at 5% (out of 100%).

Hackerrank describes this problem as easy.

Note:
Hackerrank has strict execution time limits (typically 2 seconds for C++ code) and often a much wider input range than the original problem.
In my opinion, Hackerrank's modified problems are usually a lot harder to solve. As a rule thumb: brute-force is rarely an option.

Heatmap

Please click on a problem's number to open my solution to that problem:

green   solutions solve the original Project Euler problem and have a perfect score of 100% at Hackerrank, too
yellow solutions score less than 100% at Hackerrank (but still solve the original problem easily)
gray problems are already solved but I haven't published my solution yet
blue solutions are relevant for Project Euler only: there wasn't a Hackerrank version of it (at the time I solved it) or it differed too much
orange problems are solved but exceed the time limit of one minute or the memory limit of 256 MByte
red problems are not solved yet but I wrote a simulation to approximate the result or verified at least the given example - usually I sketched a few ideas, too
black problems are solved but access to the solution is blocked for a few days until the next problem is published
[new] the flashing problem is the one I solved most recently
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The 306 solved problems (that's level 12) had an average difficulty of 32.5% at Project Euler and
I scored 13526 points (out of 15700 possible points, top rank was 17 out of ≈60000 in August 2017) at Hackerrank's Project Euler+.

My username at Project Euler is stephanbrumme while it's stbrumme at Hackerrank.

Look at my progress and performance pages to get more details.

more about me can be found on my homepage, especially in my coding blog.
some names mentioned on this site may be trademarks of their respective owners.
thanks to the KaTeX team for their great typesetting library !