<< problem 36 - Double-base palindromes | Pandigital multiples - problem 38 >> |

# Problem 37: Truncatable primes

(see projecteuler.net/problem=37)

The number 3797 has an interesting property. Being prime itself, it is possible to continuously remove digits from left to right,

and remain prime at each stage: 3797, 797, 97, and 7. Similarly we can work from right to left: 3797, 379, 37, and 3.

Find the sum of the only eleven primes that are both truncatable from left to right and right to left.

*NOTE:* 2, 3, 5, and 7 are not considered to be truncatable primes.

# Algorithm

A generic prime sieve is mixed with my check for "prime-truncatability": as soon as a prime number is found, I remove digits step-by-step from the right side

and make sure that the truncated number is still a prime number. In pseudo-code:

`while (number > 0 && primes.count(number) != 0)`

` remove_one_digit(number)`

← see explanation below

If `number == 0`

at the end of the `while`

-loop then `number`

is truncatable and prime.

Removing the right-most digit is simple: just divide by 10 and ignore any remainder. See the code that processes `right`

.

Removing the left-most digit takes a little more effort (look out for `left`

and `factor`

):

Find that largest power-of-10 that is still smaller than the current number (that's my `factor`

).

Then the remainder of `left % factor`

chops off the left-most digit.

## Modifications by HackerRank

Hackerrank gave indirectly away that all such numbers are less than 1000000 (which is confirmed by OEIS A020994).

Hackerrank's problem asks for a user-defined upper limit.

# My code

… was written in C++11 and can be compiled with G++, Clang++, Visual C++. You can download it, too.

#include <set>
#include <iostream>
int main()
{
// find all primes up to
unsigned int n;
std::cin >> n; // 1000000 is sufficient for the original problem
// will contain all primes found so far
std::set<unsigned int> primes;
// all single-digit prime numbers (2,3,5,7) are not truncatable by definition
primes.insert(2);
primes.insert(3);
primes.insert(5);
primes.insert(7);
unsigned int sum = 0;
// check prime numbers with at least two digits
// note: even numbers cannot be prime (except 2)
for (unsigned int i = 11; i < n; i += 2)
{
bool isPrime = true;
// check against all known primes
for (auto p : primes)
{
// no more prime factors possible
if (p*p > i)
break;
// divisible by another prime ? => i is not prime
if (i % p == 0)
{
isPrime = false;
break;
}
}
if (!isPrime)
continue;
// now we have a prime
primes.insert(i);
// check whether truncable from the right side
auto right = i;
// remove right-most digit if still prime and until no digits remain
while (right > 0 && primes.count(right) != 0)
right /= 10;
// pass only if all digits were successfully removed
if (right != 0)
continue;
// same idea from the left side
auto left = i;
// find position of left-most digit
unsigned int factor = 1;
while (factor * 10 <= left)
factor *= 10;
// remove left-most digit if still prime and until no digits remain
while (left > 0 && primes.count(left) != 0)
{
// fast version:
left %= factor;
// slower version: subtract until highest digit is completely gone (=zero)
//while (left >= factor)
// left -= factor;
// okay, next digit is 10 times smaller
factor /= 10;
}
// pass only if all digits were successfully removed
if (left != 0)
continue;
// yeah, passed all tests !
sum += i;
}
std::cout << sum << std::endl;
return 0;
}

This solution contains 11 empty lines, 22 comments and 2 preprocessor commands.

# Interactive test

You can submit your own input to my program and it will be instantly processed at my server:

This is equivalent to`echo 10000 | ./37`

Output:

*Note:* the original problem's input `1000000`

__cannot__ be entered

because just copying results is a soft skill reserved for idiots.

*(this interactive test is still under development, computations will be aborted after one second)*

# Benchmark

The correct solution to the original Project Euler problem was found in 0.17 seconds on a Intel® Core™ i7-2600K CPU @ 3.40GHz.

Peak memory usage was about 6 MByte.

(compiled for x86_64 / Linux, GCC flags: `-O3 -march=native -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -std=c++11 -DORIGINAL`

)

See here for a comparison of all solutions.

**Note:** interactive tests run on a weaker (=slower) computer. Some interactive tests are compiled without `-DORIGINAL`

.

# Changelog

February 23, 2017 submitted solution

April 12, 2017 added comments

# Hackerrank

see https://www.hackerrank.com/contests/projecteuler/challenges/euler037

My code solves **4** out of **4** test cases (score: **100%**)

# Difficulty

Project Euler ranks this problem at **5%** (out of 100%).

Hackerrank describes this problem as **easy**.

*Note:*

Hackerrank has strict execution time limits (typically 2 seconds for C++ code) and often a much wider input range than the original problem.

In my opinion, Hackerrank's modified problems are usually a lot harder to solve. As a rule thumb: brute-force is never an option.

# Links

projecteuler.net/thread=37 - **the** best forum on the subject (*note:* you have to submit the correct solution first)

Code in various languages:

Python: www.mathblog.dk/project-euler-37-truncatable-primes/ (written by Kristian Edlund)

Java: github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/java/p037.java (written by Nayuki)

Mathematica: github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/mathematica/p037.mathematica (written by Nayuki)

C: github.com/eagletmt/project-euler-c/blob/master/30-39/problem37.c (written by eagletmt)

Go: github.com/frrad/project-euler/blob/master/golang/Problem037.go (written by Frederick Robinson)

Javascript: github.com/dsernst/ProjectEuler/blob/master/37 Truncatable primes.js (written by David Ernst)

Scala: github.com/samskivert/euler-scala/blob/master/Euler037.scala (written by Michael Bayne)

# Heatmap

green problems solve the original Project Euler problem and have a perfect score of 100% at Hackerrank, too.

yellow problems score less than 100% at Hackerrank (but still solve the original problem).

gray problems are already solved but I haven't published my solution yet.

blue problems are solved and there wasn't a Hackerrank version of it at the time I solved it or I didn't care about it because it differed too much.

*Please click on a problem's number to open my solution to that problem:*

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 |

26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 |

51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 |

76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 |

101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107 | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119 | 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 |

126 | 127 | 128 | 129 | 130 | 131 | 132 | 133 | 134 | 135 | 136 | 137 | 138 | 139 | 140 | 141 | 142 | 143 | 144 | 145 | 146 | 147 | 148 | 149 | 150 |

151 | 152 | 153 | 154 | 155 | 156 | 157 | 158 | 159 | 160 | 161 | 162 | 163 | 164 | 165 | 166 | 167 | 168 | 169 | 170 | 171 | 172 | 173 | 174 | 175 |

176 | 177 | 178 | 179 | 180 | 181 | 182 | 183 | 184 | 185 | 186 | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 | 192 | 193 | 194 | 195 | 196 | 197 | 198 | 199 | 200 |

201 | 202 | 203 | 204 | 205 | 206 | 207 | 208 | 209 | 210 | 211 | 212 | 213 | 214 | 215 | 216 | 217 | 218 | 219 | 220 | 221 | 222 | 223 | 224 | 225 |

226 | 227 | 228 | 229 | 230 | 231 | 232 | 233 | 234 | 235 | 236 | 237 | 238 | 239 | 240 | 241 | 242 | 243 | 244 | 245 | 246 | 247 | 248 | 249 | 250 |

My username at Project Euler is

**stephanbrumme**while it's stbrumme at Hackerrank.

<< problem 36 - Double-base palindromes | Pandigital multiples - problem 38 >> |