<< problem 134 - Prime pair connection | Singleton differences - problem 136 >> |
Problem 135: Same differences
(see projecteuler.net/problem=135)
Given the positive integers, x, y, and z, are consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression, the least value of the positive integer, n,
for which the equation, x^2 - y^2 - z^2 = n, has exactly two solutions is n = 27:
34^2 - 27^2 - 20^2 = 12^2 - 9^2 - 6^2 = 27
It turns out that n = 1155 is the least value which has exactly ten solutions.
How many values of n less than one million have exactly ten distinct solutions?
My Algorithm
Let's assume y = a, x = a + b and z = a - b. Then I have to solve:
(a + b)^2 - a^2 - (a - b)^2
= a^2 + 2ab + b^2 - a^2 - a^2 + 2ab - b^2
= 4ab - a^2
= a(4b - a)
All variables are positive integers, therefore 1 <= a < n.
The value inside the brackets has to be positive, too, and b must be lower than a such that \lceil frac{a}{4} \rceil <= b < a
Finally, iterating over all solutions
and counting how often 10 occurs given the desired result.
Modifications by HackerRank
Just print how many solutions exists for a given input. The upper limit is 8 million (inclusive) opposed to one million (exclusive) of the original problem.
Interactive test
You can submit your own input to my program and it will be instantly processed at my server:
This live test is based on the Hackerrank problem.
This is equivalent toecho "1 1155" | ./135
Output:
(this interactive test is still under development, computations will be aborted after one second)
My code
… was written in C++11 and can be compiled with G++, Clang++, Visual C++. You can download it, too.
The code contains #ifdef
s to switch between the original problem and the Hackerrank version.
Enable #ifdef ORIGINAL
to produce the result for the original problem (default setting for most problems).
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
//#define ORIGINAL
int main()
{
#ifdef ORIGINAL
unsigned int limit = 1000000; // "less than one million"
#else
unsigned int limit = 8000001; // up to 8 million (inclusive)
#endif
// precompute solutions
std::vector<unsigned int> solutions(limit, 0);
for (unsigned int a = 1; a < limit; a++)
for (auto b = (a + 3) / 4; b < a; b++)
{
auto current = a * (4*b - a);
if (current >= limit)
break;
solutions[current]++;
}
#ifdef ORIGINAL
// count all with exactly 10 solutions
unsigned int count = 0;
for (auto s : solutions)
if (s == 10)
count++;
std::cout << count << std::endl;
#else
// look up number of solutions
unsigned int tests;
std::cin >> tests;
while (tests--)
{
unsigned int pos;
std::cin >> pos;
std::cout << solutions[pos] << std::endl;
}
#endif
return 0;
}
This solution contains 8 empty lines, 4 comments and 8 preprocessor commands.
Benchmark
The correct solution to the original Project Euler problem was found in less than 0.01 seconds on an Intel® Core™ i7-2600K CPU @ 3.40GHz.
Peak memory usage was about 6 MByte.
(compiled for x86_64 / Linux, GCC flags: -O3 -march=native -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -std=gnu++11 -DORIGINAL
)
See here for a comparison of all solutions.
Note: interactive tests run on a weaker (=slower) computer. Some interactive tests are compiled without -DORIGINAL
.
Changelog
May 19, 2017 submitted solution
May 22, 2017 added comments
Hackerrank
see https://www.hackerrank.com/contests/projecteuler/challenges/euler135
My code solves 16 out of 16 test cases (score: 100%)
Difficulty
Project Euler ranks this problem at 45% (out of 100%).
Hackerrank describes this problem as medium.
Note:
Hackerrank has strict execution time limits (typically 2 seconds for C++ code) and often a much wider input range than the original problem.
In my opinion, Hackerrank's modified problems are usually a lot harder to solve. As a rule thumb: brute-force is rarely an option.
Links
projecteuler.net/thread=135 - the best forum on the subject (note: you have to submit the correct solution first)
Code in various languages:
C# www.mathblog.dk/project-euler-135-same-differences/ (written by Kristian Edlund)
C# github.com/HaochenLiu/My-Project-Euler/blob/master/135.cs (written by Haochen Liu)
Python github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/python/p135.py (written by Nayuki)
C++ github.com/Meng-Gen/ProjectEuler/blob/master/135.cc (written by Meng-Gen Tsai)
C++ github.com/smacke/project-euler/blob/master/cpp/135.cpp (written by Stephen Macke)
C github.com/LaurentMazare/ProjectEuler/blob/master/e135.c (written by Laurent Mazare)
Java github.com/dcrousso/ProjectEuler/blob/master/PE135.java (written by Devin Rousso)
Java github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/java/p135.java (written by Nayuki)
Java github.com/thrap/project-euler/blob/master/src/Java/Problem135.java (written by Magnus Solheim Thrap)
Go github.com/frrad/project-euler/blob/master/golang/Problem135.go (written by Frederick Robinson)
Mathematica github.com/steve98654/ProjectEuler/blob/master/135.nb
Perl github.com/shlomif/project-euler/blob/master/project-euler/135/euler-135.pl (written by Shlomi Fish)
Rust github.com/gifnksm/ProjectEulerRust/blob/master/src/bin/p135.rs
Those links are just an unordered selection of source code I found with a semi-automatic search script on Google/Bing/GitHub/whatever.
You will probably stumble upon better solutions when searching on your own.
Maybe not all linked resources produce the correct result and/or exceed time/memory limits.
Heatmap
Please click on a problem's number to open my solution to that problem:
green | solutions solve the original Project Euler problem and have a perfect score of 100% at Hackerrank, too | |
yellow | solutions score less than 100% at Hackerrank (but still solve the original problem easily) | |
gray | problems are already solved but I haven't published my solution yet | |
blue | solutions are relevant for Project Euler only: there wasn't a Hackerrank version of it (at the time I solved it) or it differed too much | |
orange | problems are solved but exceed the time limit of one minute or the memory limit of 256 MByte | |
red | problems are not solved yet but I wrote a simulation to approximate the result or verified at least the given example - usually I sketched a few ideas, too | |
black | problems are solved but access to the solution is blocked for a few days until the next problem is published | |
[new] | the flashing problem is the one I solved most recently |
I stopped working on Project Euler problems around the time they released 617.
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I scored 13526 points (out of 15700 possible points, top rank was 17 out of ≈60000 in August 2017) at Hackerrank's Project Euler+.
My username at Project Euler is stephanbrumme while it's stbrumme at Hackerrank.
Look at my progress and performance pages to get more details.
Copyright
I hope you enjoy my code and learn something - or give me feedback how I can improve my solutions.
All of my solutions can be used for any purpose and I am in no way liable for any damages caused.
You can even remove my name and claim it's yours. But then you shall burn in hell.
The problems and most of the problems' images were created by Project Euler.
Thanks for all their endless effort !!!
<< problem 134 - Prime pair connection | Singleton differences - problem 136 >> |