<< problem 64 - Odd period square roots | Diophantine equation - problem 66 >> |
Problem 65: Convergents of e
(see projecteuler.net/problem=65)
The square root of 2 can be written as an infinite continued fraction.
sqrt{2} = 1 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2 + frac{1}{2 + ...}}}}
The infinite continued fraction can be written, sqrt{2} = [1;(2)], (2) indicates that 2 repeats ad infinitum.
In a similar way, sqrt{23} = [4;(1,3,1,8)].
It turns out that the sequence of partial values of continued fractions for square roots provide the best rational approximations.
Let us consider the convergents for sqrt{2}.
1 + dfrac{1}{2} = dfrac{3}{2}
1 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2}} = dfrac{7}{5}
1 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2}}} = dfrac{17}{12}
1 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2 + dfrac{1}{2}}}} = dfrac{41}{29}
Hence the sequence of the first ten convergents for sqrt{2} are:
1, dfrac{3}{2}, dfrac{7}{5}, dfrac{17}{12}, dfrac{41}{29}, dfrac{99}{70}, dfrac{239}{169}, dfrac{577}{408}, dfrac{1393}{985}, dfrac{3363}{2378}, ...
What is most surprising is that the important mathematical constant,
e = [2; 1,2,1, 1,4,1, 1,6,1 , ... , 1,2k,1, ...].
The first ten terms in the sequence of convergents for e are:
2, 3, dfrac{8}{3}, dfrac{11}{4}, dfrac{19}{7}, dfrac{87}{32}, dfrac{106}{39}, dfrac{193}{71}, dfrac{1264}{465}, dfrac{1457}{536}, ...
The sum of digits in the numerator of the 10th convergent is 1+4+5+7=17.
Find the sum of digits in the numerator of the 100th convergent of the continued fraction for e.
My Algorithm
Let's compare the first 10 numerators and the continuous fractions (values taken from problem statement):
knumeratorcontinuous fraction
121
232
381
4111
5194
6871
71061
81936
912641
1014571
After staring at the numbers for 5 minutes I saw that:
nominator_i = nominator_{i-2} + nominator_{i-1} * fraction_{i-1}
All I have to do is writing a simple for
-loop that keeps tracks of the two most recent numerators.
The continuous fraction is 1 if index mod 3 != 2 and 2k if index mod 3 == 2.
The numerators can grow pretty fast and exceed 2^64: the numerator for k=100 has 58 decimal digits.
That's why I have to use my BigNum
class. The code was used previously in several solutions, too, e.g. problem 56.
There is a minor change: the constant MaxDigit=10
was replaced by the highest power-of-10 that is below 2^32.
The only reason is an improved performance (about 10x faster than MaxDigit = 10
).
Interactive test
You can submit your own input to my program and it will be instantly processed at my server:
This is equivalent toecho 10 | ./65
Output:
Note: the original problem's input 100
cannot be entered
because just copying results is a soft skill reserved for idiots.
(this interactive test is still under development, computations will be aborted after one second)
My code
… was written in C++11 and can be compiled with G++, Clang++, Visual C++. You can download it, too.
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
// store single digits with lowest digits first
// e.g. 1024 is stored as { 4,2,0,1 }
// only non-negative numbers supported
struct BigNum : public std::vector<unsigned int>
{
// string conversion works only properly when MaxDigit is a power of 10
static const unsigned int MaxDigit = 1000000000;
// store a non-negative number
BigNum(unsigned long long x = 0)
{
do
{
push_back(x % MaxDigit);
x /= MaxDigit;
} while (x > 0);
}
// add two big numbers
BigNum operator+(const BigNum& other) const
{
auto result = *this;
// add in-place, make sure it's big enough
if (result.size() < other.size())
result.resize(other.size(), 0);
unsigned int carry = 0;
for (size_t i = 0; i < result.size(); i++)
{
carry += result[i];
if (i < other.size())
carry += other[i];
else
if (carry == 0)
return result;
if (carry < MaxDigit)
{
// no overflow
result[i] = carry;
carry = 0;
}
else
{
// yes, we have an overflow
result[i] = carry - MaxDigit;
carry = 1;
}
}
if (carry > 0)
result.push_back(carry);
return result;
}
// multiply a big number by an integer
BigNum operator*(unsigned int factor) const
{
unsigned long long carry = 0;
auto result = *this;
for (auto& i : result)
{
carry += i * (unsigned long long)factor;
i = carry % MaxDigit;
carry /= MaxDigit;
}
// store remaining carry in new digits
while (carry > 0)
{
result.push_back(carry % MaxDigit);
carry /= MaxDigit;
}
return result;
}
};
int main()
{
unsigned int lastIndex;
std::cin >> lastIndex;
// to save memory we dont keep all numerators, only the latest three
BigNum numerators[3] = { 0, // dummy, will be overwritten immediately
1, // always 1
2 }; // the first number of the continuous fraction ("before the semicolon")
for (unsigned int index = 2; index <= lastIndex; index++)
{
// e = [2; 1,2,1, 1,4,1, ... 1,2k,1, ...]
unsigned int fractionNumber = 1;
if (index % 3 == 0)
fractionNumber = (index / 3) * 2;
// keep only the latest two numerators
numerators[0] = std::move(numerators[1]);
numerators[1] = std::move(numerators[2]);
// and generate the next one
if (fractionNumber == 1)
numerators[2] = numerators[0] + numerators[1];
else
numerators[2] = numerators[0] + numerators[1] * fractionNumber;
}
// add all digits of the last numerator
unsigned int sum = 0;
for (auto x : numerators[2])
// when MaxDigit != 10 then we have to split into single digits
while (x > 0)
{
sum += x % 10;
x /= 10;
}
std::cout << sum << std::endl;
return 0;
}
This solution contains 16 empty lines, 17 comments and 2 preprocessor commands.
Benchmark
The correct solution to the original Project Euler problem was found in less than 0.01 seconds on an Intel® Core™ i7-2600K CPU @ 3.40GHz.
(compiled for x86_64 / Linux, GCC flags: -O3 -march=native -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -std=gnu++11 -DORIGINAL
)
See here for a comparison of all solutions.
Note: interactive tests run on a weaker (=slower) computer. Some interactive tests are compiled without -DORIGINAL
.
Changelog
March 8, 2017 submitted solution
April 29, 2017 added comments
Hackerrank
see https://www.hackerrank.com/contests/projecteuler/challenges/euler065
My code solves 9 out of 9 test cases (score: 100%)
Difficulty
Project Euler ranks this problem at 15% (out of 100%).
Hackerrank describes this problem as easy.
Note:
Hackerrank has strict execution time limits (typically 2 seconds for C++ code) and often a much wider input range than the original problem.
In my opinion, Hackerrank's modified problems are usually a lot harder to solve. As a rule thumb: brute-force is rarely an option.
Links
projecteuler.net/thread=65 - the best forum on the subject (note: you have to submit the correct solution first)
Code in various languages:
C# www.mathblog.dk/project-euler-65-numerator-continued-fraction-e/ (written by Kristian Edlund)
Python github.com/Meng-Gen/ProjectEuler/blob/master/65.py (written by Meng-Gen Tsai)
Python github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/python/p065.py (written by Nayuki)
C++ github.com/HaochenLiu/My-Project-Euler/blob/master/065.cpp (written by Haochen Liu)
Java github.com/dcrousso/ProjectEuler/blob/master/PE065.java (written by Devin Rousso)
Java github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/java/p065.java (written by Nayuki)
Java github.com/thrap/project-euler/blob/master/src/Java/Problem65.java (written by Magnus Solheim Thrap)
Go github.com/frrad/project-euler/blob/master/golang/Problem065.go (written by Frederick Robinson)
Mathematica github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/mathematica/p065.mathematica (written by Nayuki)
Mathematica github.com/steve98654/ProjectEuler/blob/master/065.nb
Haskell github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/haskell/p065.hs (written by Nayuki)
Haskell github.com/roosephu/project-euler/blob/master/65.hs (written by Yuping Luo)
Clojure github.com/guillaume-nargeot/project-euler-clojure/blob/master/src/project_euler/problem_065.clj (written by Guillaume Nargeot)
Clojure github.com/rm-hull/project-euler/blob/master/src/euler065.clj (written by Richard Hull)
Scala github.com/samskivert/euler-scala/blob/master/Euler065.scala (written by Michael Bayne)
Perl github.com/gustafe/projecteuler/blob/master/065-Convergents-of-e.pl (written by Gustaf Erikson)
Rust github.com/gifnksm/ProjectEulerRust/blob/master/src/bin/p065.rs
Those links are just an unordered selection of source code I found with a semi-automatic search script on Google/Bing/GitHub/whatever.
You will probably stumble upon better solutions when searching on your own.
Maybe not all linked resources produce the correct result and/or exceed time/memory limits.
Heatmap
Please click on a problem's number to open my solution to that problem:
green | solutions solve the original Project Euler problem and have a perfect score of 100% at Hackerrank, too | |
yellow | solutions score less than 100% at Hackerrank (but still solve the original problem easily) | |
gray | problems are already solved but I haven't published my solution yet | |
blue | solutions are relevant for Project Euler only: there wasn't a Hackerrank version of it (at the time I solved it) or it differed too much | |
orange | problems are solved but exceed the time limit of one minute or the memory limit of 256 MByte | |
red | problems are not solved yet but I wrote a simulation to approximate the result or verified at least the given example - usually I sketched a few ideas, too | |
black | problems are solved but access to the solution is blocked for a few days until the next problem is published | |
[new] | the flashing problem is the one I solved most recently |
I stopped working on Project Euler problems around the time they released 617.
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 |
26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 |
51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 |
76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 |
101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107 | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119 | 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 |
126 | 127 | 128 | 129 | 130 | 131 | 132 | 133 | 134 | 135 | 136 | 137 | 138 | 139 | 140 | 141 | 142 | 143 | 144 | 145 | 146 | 147 | 148 | 149 | 150 |
151 | 152 | 153 | 154 | 155 | 156 | 157 | 158 | 159 | 160 | 161 | 162 | 163 | 164 | 165 | 166 | 167 | 168 | 169 | 170 | 171 | 172 | 173 | 174 | 175 |
176 | 177 | 178 | 179 | 180 | 181 | 182 | 183 | 184 | 185 | 186 | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 | 192 | 193 | 194 | 195 | 196 | 197 | 198 | 199 | 200 |
201 | 202 | 203 | 204 | 205 | 206 | 207 | 208 | 209 | 210 | 211 | 212 | 213 | 214 | 215 | 216 | 217 | 218 | 219 | 220 | 221 | 222 | 223 | 224 | 225 |
226 | 227 | 228 | 229 | 230 | 231 | 232 | 233 | 234 | 235 | 236 | 237 | 238 | 239 | 240 | 241 | 242 | 243 | 244 | 245 | 246 | 247 | 248 | 249 | 250 |
251 | 252 | 253 | 254 | 255 | 256 | 257 | 258 | 259 | 260 | 261 | 262 | 263 | 264 | 265 | 266 | 267 | 268 | 269 | 270 | 271 | 272 | 273 | 274 | 275 |
276 | 277 | 278 | 279 | 280 | 281 | 282 | 283 | 284 | 285 | 286 | 287 | 288 | 289 | 290 | 291 | 292 | 293 | 294 | 295 | 296 | 297 | 298 | 299 | 300 |
301 | 302 | 303 | 304 | 305 | 306 | 307 | 308 | 309 | 310 | 311 | 312 | 313 | 314 | 315 | 316 | 317 | 318 | 319 | 320 | 321 | 322 | 323 | 324 | 325 |
326 | 327 | 328 | 329 | 330 | 331 | 332 | 333 | 334 | 335 | 336 | 337 | 338 | 339 | 340 | 341 | 342 | 343 | 344 | 345 | 346 | 347 | 348 | 349 | 350 |
351 | 352 | 353 | 354 | 355 | 356 | 357 | 358 | 359 | 360 | 361 | 362 | 363 | 364 | 365 | 366 | 367 | 368 | 369 | 370 | 371 | 372 | 373 | 374 | 375 |
376 | 377 | 378 | 379 | 380 | 381 | 382 | 383 | 384 | 385 | 386 | 387 | 388 | 389 | 390 | 391 | 392 | 393 | 394 | 395 | 396 | 397 | 398 | 399 | 400 |
401 | 402 | 403 | 404 | 405 | 406 | 407 | 408 | 409 | 410 | 411 | 412 | 413 | 414 | 415 | 416 | 417 | 418 | 419 | 420 | 421 | 422 | 423 | 424 | 425 |
426 | 427 | 428 | 429 | 430 | 431 | 432 | 433 | 434 | 435 | 436 | 437 | 438 | 439 | 440 | 441 | 442 | 443 | 444 | 445 | 446 | 447 | 448 | 449 | 450 |
451 | 452 | 453 | 454 | 455 | 456 | 457 | 458 | 459 | 460 | 461 | 462 | 463 | 464 | 465 | 466 | 467 | 468 | 469 | 470 | 471 | 472 | 473 | 474 | 475 |
476 | 477 | 478 | 479 | 480 | 481 | 482 | 483 | 484 | 485 | 486 | 487 | 488 | 489 | 490 | 491 | 492 | 493 | 494 | 495 | 496 | 497 | 498 | 499 | 500 |
501 | 502 | 503 | 504 | 505 | 506 | 507 | 508 | 509 | 510 | 511 | 512 | 513 | 514 | 515 | 516 | 517 | 518 | 519 | 520 | 521 | 522 | 523 | 524 | 525 |
526 | 527 | 528 | 529 | 530 | 531 | 532 | 533 | 534 | 535 | 536 | 537 | 538 | 539 | 540 | 541 | 542 | 543 | 544 | 545 | 546 | 547 | 548 | 549 | 550 |
551 | 552 | 553 | 554 | 555 | 556 | 557 | 558 | 559 | 560 | 561 | 562 | 563 | 564 | 565 | 566 | 567 | 568 | 569 | 570 | 571 | 572 | 573 | 574 | 575 |
576 | 577 | 578 | 579 | 580 | 581 | 582 | 583 | 584 | 585 | 586 | 587 | 588 | 589 | 590 | 591 | 592 | 593 | 594 | 595 | 596 | 597 | 598 | 599 | 600 |
601 | 602 | 603 | 604 | 605 | 606 | 607 | 608 | 609 | 610 | 611 | 612 | 613 | 614 | 615 | 616 | 617 | 618 | 619 | 620 | 621 | 622 | 623 | 624 | 625 |
626 | 627 | 628 | 629 | 630 | 631 | 632 | 633 | 634 | 635 | 636 | 637 |
I scored 13526 points (out of 15700 possible points, top rank was 17 out of ≈60000 in August 2017) at Hackerrank's Project Euler+.
My username at Project Euler is stephanbrumme while it's stbrumme at Hackerrank.
Look at my progress and performance pages to get more details.
Copyright
I hope you enjoy my code and learn something - or give me feedback how I can improve my solutions.
All of my solutions can be used for any purpose and I am in no way liable for any damages caused.
You can even remove my name and claim it's yours. But then you shall burn in hell.
The problems and most of the problems' images were created by Project Euler.
Thanks for all their endless effort !!!
<< problem 64 - Odd period square roots | Diophantine equation - problem 66 >> |