<< problem 62 - Cubic permutations | Odd period square roots - problem 64 >> |
Problem 63: Powerful digit counts
(see projecteuler.net/problem=63)
The 5-digit number, 16807=7^5, is also a fifth power. Similarly, the 9-digit number, 134217728=8^9, is a ninth power.
How many n-digit positive integers exist which are also an nth power?
My Algorithm
check(n)
finds all such powers with n
digits:
- first it generates the smallest n-digit number
from
and the largest n-digit numberto
- e.g. for
n=5
we havefrom=10000
andto=99999
- then all numbers
1^n
to9^n
are computed, if they are betweenfrom
andto
we have a match
A minor headache was that 21 digits don't fit into C++
unsigned long long
anymore.Therefore I switched to
double
which has a few rounding issues but they don't affect the original problem.
Alternative Approaches
It's easy to determine the number of digits using log10
.
And as mentioned in the code, pow(a,b)
returns a^b.
Both functions are available in the C++ standard library.
Modifications by HackerRank
Hackerrank wants you to print all powers with a certain number of digits - instead of finding the number of all such powers.
However, the rounding issues of double
now come into play and the right-most digits are a bit off for large n
.
Fortunately, Hackerrank wants us only to find the powers with at most 19 digits ... and a 64 bit unsigned long long
is sufficient for this task.
That's why you find the #ifdef
construct where the type of Number
is defined.
Interactive test
You can submit your own input to my program and it will be instantly processed at my server:
This live test is based on the Hackerrank problem.
This is equivalent toecho 5 | ./63
Output:
(this interactive test is still under development, computations will be aborted after one second)
My code
… was written in C++11 and can be compiled with G++, Clang++, Visual C++. You can download it, too. Or just jump to my GitHub repository.
The code contains #ifdef
s to switch between the original problem and the Hackerrank version.
Enable #ifdef ORIGINAL
to produce the result for the original problem (default setting for most problems).
#include <iostream>
//#define ORIGINAL
// find all numbers where x^digits has digits digits (I'm loving that comment ...)
unsigned int check(unsigned int digits)
{
// numbe rof matches
unsigned int count = 0;
// unsigned long long isn't sufficient for the highest digits
// a double has some rounding issues but they don't affect to result
#ifdef ORIGINAL
typedef double Number;
#else
typedef unsigned long long Number;
#endif
// range of valid numbers
// from = 10^(digits-1)
// to = 10^digits - 1
Number to = 1;
for (unsigned int i = 1; i <= digits; i++)
to *= 10;
Number from = to / 10;
to--;
// try all single-digit base numbers
for (unsigned int base = 1; base <= 9; base++)
{
// compute power = base ^ digits
Number power = base;
for (unsigned int i = 1; i < digits && power <= to; i++)
power *= base;
// could use C++'s pow(), too
// right number of digits ?
if (power >= from && power <= to)
{
count++;
#ifndef ORIGINAL
std::cout << std::fixed << power << std::endl;
#endif
}
}
return count;
}
int main()
{
#ifdef ORIGINAL
// check all digits
unsigned int count = 0;
for (unsigned int digits = 1; digits <= 21; digits++) // I observed no results with more than 21 digits
count += check(digits);
std::cout << count << std::endl;
#else
// check only certain digits
unsigned int digits = 9;
std::cin >> digits;
check(digits);
#endif
return 0;
}
This solution contains 11 empty lines, 14 comments and 9 preprocessor commands.
Benchmark
The correct solution to the original Project Euler problem was found in less than 0.01 seconds on an Intel® Core™ i7-2600K CPU @ 3.40GHz.
(compiled for x86_64 / Linux, GCC flags: -O3 -march=native -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -std=gnu++11 -DORIGINAL
)
See here for a comparison of all solutions.
Note: interactive tests run on a weaker (=slower) computer. Some interactive tests are compiled without -DORIGINAL
.
Changelog
February 28, 2017 submitted solution
April 26, 2017 added comments
Hackerrank
see https://www.hackerrank.com/contests/projecteuler/challenges/euler063
My code solves 10 out of 10 test cases (score: 100%)
Difficulty
Project Euler ranks this problem at 5% (out of 100%).
Hackerrank describes this problem as easy.
Note:
Hackerrank has strict execution time limits (typically 2 seconds for C++ code) and often a much wider input range than the original problem.
In my opinion, Hackerrank's modified problems are usually a lot harder to solve. As a rule thumb: brute-force is rarely an option.
Links
projecteuler.net/thread=63 - the best forum on the subject (note: you have to submit the correct solution first)
Code in various languages:
C# www.mathblog.dk/project-euler-63-n-digit-nth-power/ (written by Kristian Edlund)
Python github.com/hughdbrown/Project-Euler/blob/master/euler-063.py (written by Hugh Brown)
Python github.com/Meng-Gen/ProjectEuler/blob/master/63.py (written by Meng-Gen Tsai)
Python github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/python/p063.py (written by Nayuki)
Python github.com/sefakilic/euler/blob/master/python/euler063.py (written by Sefa Kilic)
C++ github.com/HaochenLiu/My-Project-Euler/blob/master/063.cpp (written by Haochen Liu)
Java github.com/dcrousso/ProjectEuler/blob/master/PE063.java (written by Devin Rousso)
Java github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/java/p063.java (written by Nayuki)
Java github.com/thrap/project-euler/blob/master/src/Java/Problem63.java (written by Magnus Solheim Thrap)
Go github.com/frrad/project-euler/blob/master/golang/Problem063.go (written by Frederick Robinson)
Mathematica github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/mathematica/p063.mathematica (written by Nayuki)
Mathematica github.com/steve98654/ProjectEuler/blob/master/063.nb
Haskell github.com/nayuki/Project-Euler-solutions/blob/master/haskell/p063.hs (written by Nayuki)
Haskell github.com/roosephu/project-euler/blob/master/63.hs (written by Yuping Luo)
Clojure github.com/rm-hull/project-euler/blob/master/src/euler063.clj (written by Richard Hull)
Scala github.com/samskivert/euler-scala/blob/master/Euler063.scala (written by Michael Bayne)
Perl github.com/gustafe/projecteuler/blob/master/063-Powerful-digit-counts.pl (written by Gustaf Erikson)
Rust github.com/gifnksm/ProjectEulerRust/blob/master/src/bin/p063.rs
Those links are just an unordered selection of source code I found with a semi-automatic search script on Google/Bing/GitHub/whatever.
You will probably stumble upon better solutions when searching on your own.
Maybe not all linked resources produce the correct result and/or exceed time/memory limits.
Heatmap
Please click on a problem's number to open my solution to that problem:
green | solutions solve the original Project Euler problem and have a perfect score of 100% at Hackerrank, too | |
yellow | solutions score less than 100% at Hackerrank (but still solve the original problem easily) | |
gray | problems are already solved but I haven't published my solution yet | |
blue | solutions are relevant for Project Euler only: there wasn't a Hackerrank version of it (at the time I solved it) or it differed too much | |
orange | problems are solved but exceed the time limit of one minute or the memory limit of 256 MByte | |
red | problems are not solved yet but I wrote a simulation to approximate the result or verified at least the given example - usually I sketched a few ideas, too | |
black | problems are solved but access to the solution is blocked for a few days until the next problem is published | |
[new] | the flashing problem is the one I solved most recently |
I stopped working on Project Euler problems around the time they released 617.
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I scored 13526 points (out of 15700 possible points, top rank was 17 out of ≈60000 in August 2017) at Hackerrank's Project Euler+.
My username at Project Euler is stephanbrumme while it's stbrumme at Hackerrank.
Look at my progress and performance pages to get more details.
Copyright
I hope you enjoy my code and learn something - or give me feedback how I can improve my solutions.
All of my solutions can be used for any purpose and I am in no way liable for any damages caused.
You can even remove my name and claim it's yours. But then you shall burn in hell.
The problems and most of the problems' images were created by Project Euler.
Thanks for all their endless effort !!!
<< problem 62 - Cubic permutations | Odd period square roots - problem 64 >> |